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151 Upon his marriage to Eleanor, Edward received Ireland and Wales and the towns of Bristol, Stamford, and Grantham from his father. F2976 Family: F2976
 
152 Volume 1, Page 173, License Number 2318 F1107 Family: F1107
 
153 Volume 14
Film No. 0977068-0977072 
F2892 Family: F2892
 
154 Warren and Mariah were first cousins. F1215 Family: F1215
 
155 Wilbur's marriage to Mabel was his second marriage. He was divorced. F827 Family: F827
 
156 Wilhelmus and Jannetje were married at the home of Cornelius Schermerhorn. F2245 Family: F2245
 
157 William and Comfort had 10 children. F6996 Family: F6996
 
158 William and Margery were married in either London, Middlesex, England Or Weymouth, Suffolk, Mass. F534 Family: F534
 
159 William and Mary had seven children. F3203 Family: F3203
 
160 From European History: 1088-1228 edited by Elizabeth Missing Sewell, p. 219:

Baldwin II., one of the few survivors of the First Crusade, had by this time reached old age. He had no son to succeed him; and his young daughter, Melisende, was unmarried. Desirous to provide against future difficulties, Baldwin proposed to Foulques, Count of Anjou, a knight who had already distinguished himself, to marry Melisende, and succeed to that perilous dignity, the Crusaders' throne. Foulques consented, and the marriage was solemnized in 1131. Baldwin died shortly after, having reigned twelve years. 
I10335 Baldwin, II, King Of Jerusalem
 
161 From Queen Emma and the Vikings, page not numbered:

Gunnor survived her husband by a good twenty years. Although no records remain that reflect her involvement in his reign, later evidence shows that she was a significant political figure. She was certainly involved in the court of her son, where she was active until well into the 1020s - a redoubtable dowager duchess. Documents recording grants of land provide a Who's Who of court life through the list of witnesses asked to attest the proceedings. These inventories detail the chosen court council and what their status was - the higher up the list the better. Not that the witnesses actually signed any charters or grants they had been asked to testify: most of the nobility would not have known how to do so. Instead a monk, seconded to the task of scribe, would write down the names of those gathered. On her son's charters Gunnor's name consistently appears at the top, after Richard's and sometimes after that of her second son Robert, but always before her daughter-in-law, her grandsons and other courtiers and churchment.

However grand she became,
[she] did not have quite the pedigree that the Norman chroniclers claim for her. What little has been established about Gunnor's background points to the probability that her parents were first-generation settlers with modest lands in the Cotentin. One of her sisters certainly appears to have been humbly married. Sainsfrida was the wife of a forester in northern Normandy and it was apparently through her that Richard met Gunnor. One story relates that while on a hunting expedition Richard stayed at the forester's house where he became much enamoured of Sainsfrida. Wanting to retain her virtue while not insulting the Count, she neatly sent her sister to his bed - and they all lived happily ever after, give or take a few mistresses and Richard's unproductive first marriage. 
I10354 Gunnor
 
162 (Medical):Legend says that Henry died from eating a "surfeit of lamreys", of which he was excessively fond. Lamreys are also known as lamprey eels. His remains were sewn into the hide of a bull to preserve them and then taken back to England, where he was buried. I10332 Henry "Beauclerc", I, King Of England
 
163 From The Age of the Crusades, Vol. 6 by James M. Ludlow, p. 21, upon describing the cruelty of some of the leaders in the 11th century:

Henry I. of England (1068-1135) put out the eyes of his brother Robert and of his two grandchildren, and forced his daughter to cross a frozen fosse, stripped half naked.  
I10332 Henry "Beauclerc", I, King Of England
 
164 Henry granted a Charter of Liberties in which he swore to observe the laws of Edward the Confessor. He renounced his right to plunder the Church by allowing its sees and abbeys to remain vacant. He promised not to sell or lease the vacant properties of the Church and he removed the evil companions of his brother William Rufus from the positions to which William had appointed them. I10332 Henry "Beauclerc", I, King Of England
 
165 Henry promoted the welfare and happiness of his subjects. He encouraged manufacturing trades, improved the country's coinage, established a system of weights and measures, and reorganized the courts of justice. When he endowed the great towns of England with charters of freedom, he struck a heavy blow at the Feudal System of England and gave a great boost to liberty. I10332 Henry "Beauclerc", I, King Of England
 
166 Henry spoke English very well and the degree of his learning was unusual for someone his age. This earned him the name of "Beauclerc" or "Fine Scholar". I10332 Henry "Beauclerc", I, King Of England
 
167 Henry was called Beauclerc for his scholarly interests. I10332 Henry "Beauclerc", I, King Of England
 
168 Henry was hunting in the New Forest when he heard of his brother, William's, death. Henry instantly put his spurs to his horse and raced to secure the royal treasury at Winchester. He then galloped off to London and was saluted as King of England by the bishops and barons. He was crowned just three days after his brother's death. He usurped the crown from his older brother, Robert, who was loitering on his way home from the Holy Land. I10332 Henry "Beauclerc", I, King Of England
 
169 Matilda was the only surviving child of Henry I. Because of this, he resolved to leave all of his domains to his daughter, although neither the Normans or the Saxons had ever tried to leave thier crown and lands to a woman. After Henry died, Matilda headed to England to lay claim to the crown that was rightfully hers. Unfortunately, the crown was usurped by Count Stephen of Blois, Henry's nephew, before Matilda could arrive. Stephen had made himself a favorite of the citzens of London, which had paved his way to the throne. I10332 Henry "Beauclerc", I, King Of England
 
170 Henry was one of the most powerful German princes of his time, until the rival Hohenstaufen dynasty succeeded in isolating him and eventually depriving him of his duchies of Bavaria and Saxony during the reign of his cousin, Frederick I, and Frederick's son and successor, Henry VI. I18713 Henry "The Lion"
 
171 Herleve was the daughter of a tanner named Fubert from Falaise, France. I10343 Herleve, Of Falaise
 
172 She was banished to her house in Rising by her son Edward II. She was kept there until her death. I8214 Isabella, Of France
 
173 Matilda was the only surviving child of Henry I. Because of this, he left his throne and lands to her upon his death. Upon his death, she headed to England to claim what was rightfully hers. Before she could arrive, the crown was usurped by her cousin, Count Stephen of Blois. Stephen had made himself a favorite of the citizens of London, which had paved his way to the throne. Before the death of Henry I, Stephen had expressed his desire of Matilda taking the throne, but as soon as Henry passed away, Stephen hurried to London and by misrepresentation, induced the Archbishop of Canterbury to crown and anoint him the King of England. Normandy followed England's example and endowed Stephen with the title of Duke of Normandy.

Matilda appealed to her uncle, King David I of Scotland, who invaded the north of England to enforce his neice's right to the English crown. His army was comprised of wild and lawless Scottish Highlanders, who attacked both the enemies and allies of Matilda. The Archbishop of York took the field against the Scots and managed to drive them back across the English border in A.D. 1138.

Matilda travelled to England herself the following year with a small body of troops to claim her Kingdom. She was accompanied by barons who had become upset with King Stephen's rule. They managed to defeat Stephen and took him prisioner in a battle at Lincoln in 1141. He was sent to Gloucester Castle in chains.

Matilda made her way to London and was solemnly acknowledged the Queen of England by an assembly of clergy. Just before her authority over the kingdom was established, her haughty manners and violent temper turned her friends into foes. Her supporters had requested that she restore the laws of Edward the Confessor, that she allow Stephen's lands to be inherited by his son, Eustace, and she allow Stephen himself to leave prison and join a monasery. She refused, which cost her her crown. Her refusal offended the Pope's legate, who then took up arms against Matilda. Her half-brother and chief defender, Earl Robert of Gloucester, was soon captured in battle, and she was forced to exchange the imprisioned king for her captive brother. She was forced to flee in haste and took refuge inside of Oxford Castle.

Stephen rounded up his army and hastily surrounded Matilda's refuge in a way that cut off all avenues of escape. Running short of provisions, Matilda disguised herself in white to resemble the snow then on the ground, and with three devoted knights, was able to sneak through the lines of Stephen's army during the night. She crossed the frozen Thames River and was able to rejoin her loyal subjects in the West of England. From there she retired to Normandy. 
I8255 Empress Matilda, Of England
 
174 From Queen Emma and the Vikings, page not numbered:

[...] Richard I, succeeded [his father] while still a minor. He was the offspring of [his father] William's Danish-style union to the 'noble maiden' Sprota. [...] Richard, if the Norman chroniclers are to be believed, was the uncontested heir from birth and at the express wish of his father was brought up variously at Fecamp, the large Norman settlement on the coast, and at Bayeux. Both were places where he could learn Scandinavian ways and the Scandinavian language, Rouen being considered too French.

However, his childhood was to have some strongly French influence of a turbulent nature. According to the early Norman writers, shortly after his father's death, Richard was snatched by Louis IV of West Francia and held hostage at his court at Laon. Among the European nobility it was an established practice for young boys might be taken away or exchanged as an act of surety against potentially aggressive neighbours. They were generally treated honourably and accepted into court life where they enjoyed these essential aristocratic pleasures of feasting and hunting. Louis at first claimed he was taking Richard to his court in order to educate him, no doubt a slur on his Scandinavian upbringing. In reality the French king had other objectives, for he swiftly tried to make his hostage renounce his claims to Normandy on the grounds of his purported illegitimacy. When the young Richard refused, he became a heavily guarded captive. Yet his loyal and resourceful Norman regents managed to mastermind his escape and even briefly took Louis himself prisioner when he retaliated by ravaging Richard's territory. Richard subsequently looked for friends in more powerful places and later married the daughter of Louis's arch enemy Hugh the Great, a magnate whose vast estates gave him authority over hugh swathes of France and whose son Hugh Capet was subsequently elected king in 987.

Richard I was the chieftan of Normandy for a little over forty-four years, emerging as a strong leader who broadened the 'north men's' territory still further and plundered much of the rest of northern France while adiding, and trading with, the Vikings who were attacking Aethelred's England. The Norman chroniclers depict him as a near-perfect speciman: tall, well built, handsome; he had a long beard; he was a devout patron of the church; he was compassionate to widows and orphans; and he had a healthy sense of fair play, generously buying back Norman captives who had been taken during his skirmishes.
 
I10349 Richard "The Fearless", I, Duke Of Normandy
 
175 From Queen Emma and the Vikings, page unmarked:

[...] the Norman chroniclers trace Rollo back to Denmark. They record that he and his bellicose followers were driven out of the 'island' of Scania (presumably Skane, on the southern tip of what is now mainland Sweden) by other Viking groups, an expulsion that would have taken place some time during the 870s. After ten years ravaging the coasts of England and Holland, Rollo and his men moved on to the territory of the King of West Francia - and here questionable myth sarts to merge with proven fact.

When Rollo arrived in what is now northern France, there were already a number of Scandinavian settlements around the Cotetin peninsula and the Seine. As a sea-faring plunderer, the Viking newcomer would not have been entirely welcome with those who make homes in the area. In the 880s he sailed up the Seine, captured Rouen and made it his strategic base. From there he joined other Viking plunderers in besieging Paris, and he petulantly ravaged the countryside when he considered he was not being paid enough to leave the city in peace.

His activities must have been particularly menacing, for eventually Charles the Simple of West Francia struck a deal with Rollo. A ruler more shrewd than his nickname suggests, Charles demanded terms to keep the Viking very much under his control: in return for land, Rollo was obliged to convert to Christianity, marry Charles's daughter Gisla and become a vassal of the king. The unfortunate, peaceweaving Gisla did not survive long. She died childless whereupon Rollo reinstalled his companion Poppa, to whom he was 'bound according to the Danish custom'.

This presumably refers to pagan Scandinavian marriage practice. Northern marriage traditionally took place by seizure: the prospective bride would be forcibly carried off and the union formally recognised once her abductor had paid a 'bride-price' to her relatives. If the wife subsequently committed adultery she would be severely punished - in some regions she risked being killed. No such limits were imposed on Scandinavian men. They were openly promiscuous and would often keep one or more concubine whose children they might choose to recognise, or not. From a Scandinavian man's perspective, sex was unlicensed and marriage exised principally for making alliances. And for the newly Christian Viking leaders, the recognition of two separate marriage practices, Christian and pagan - and two convenient possibilities of making alliances this way - was an open door to flagrant bigamy.
 
I10351 Rollo, Duke Of Normandy
 
176 From Queen Emma and the Vikings, page not numbered:

William expanded the territory of the 'north men', gained credibility through patronage of the [Christian] church, flirted with the idea of becoming a monk - and came to a premature and bloody end on 17 December 942 when he was murdered by the Count of Flanders.

[...] Richard I, succeeded [William] while still a minor. He was the offspring of William's Danish-style union to the 'noble maiden' Sprota. However, like Rollo [William's father], William too had another wife. His Christian marriage to Leyarda, daughter of the county of Vermandois, did not produce children and on William's death she was married on to the count of Blois and Chatres.  
I10350 William "Longsword", I, Leader Of The Normans
 
177 From The Age of the Crusades, Vol. 6 by James M. Ludlow, p. 21, upon describing the cruelty of some of the leaders in the 11th century:

William Rufus (1056-1100) is thus described by one who knew him: "The outrager of humanity, of law, and of nature; beastly in his pleasures, a murderer and a blasphemous scoffer."  
I10340 William "Rufus", II, King Of England
 
178 The name meant "the Red." William was called this due to his ruddy complexion. I10340 William "Rufus", II, King Of England
 
179 Under William, one-third of all the lands in England were designated as the King's Forests, in which the word of the king was the only law. In 1100, while hunting in the New Forest that had been made in Hampshire by his father, William was shot in the head by an arrow from someone in his hunting party. It is not known if it was accidental or intentional, but Walter Tyrrel was suspected of firing the fatal shot. Although he denied it, he fled from the kingdom. The dead king's body was taken by a poor coal-burner in his cart to Winchester, where it was buried without religious rites.

To the poor people whose homes had been destroyed to make way for the King's Forests, it was considered that Williams' death in the forest was proof of Heaven's retribution for William's heartless cruelty. 
I10340 William "Rufus", II, King Of England
 
180 William seized the royal treasures and several fortresses before even making the announcement of his father's death. Archbishop Lanfranc hastened to crown him before any oppostion could be made, and the ceremony was conducted just seventeen days after his father's death. Although William's uncle, Odo, the Bishop of Bayeaux, tried to have William's older brother Robert crowned as the king of England, William made such wonderful promises to the people of England that they rallied behind him and allowed him to crush the rebellion lead by his uncle. However, the English soon began to regret their loyalty to William Rufus because he quickly forgot all of his promises as soon as the threat to his throne had passed. He quickly forgot his promises of lightened taxes, and his courtly procession was known to do more damage than an invading army whereever they went. He became known as became known as a selfish tyrant that was not deterred from his pursuit of pleasure or power by either law or religion. I10340 William "Rufus", II, King Of England
 
181 Just before his death, William divided his lands between his three sons; the duchy of Normandy was left to his eldest son, Robert, the King of England he left to his second son, William Rufus, and his youngest son, Henry, received a large treasure. I10337 William "The Conqueror", I, King Of England, Duke of Normandy
 
182 William abolished the slave trade, which had been a major source of income to the Bristol merchants. He formally abolished capital punishment, with only one person being put to death for crime during William's entire reign. In addition, William became a friend and patron to the Jews, who were then despised and persecuted. He permitted them to build homes and synagogues in all of England's principal towns. I10337 William "The Conqueror", I, King Of England, Duke of Normandy
 
183 William died while on an errand of vengeance. He had become fat during the later years of his life, and once, when he was suffering from an illness, he had been made the subject of a silly jest by King Philip I of France. Feeling deeply humiliated, William laid waste to the French king's lands after he recovered. In addition to sacking the lands bordering on the duchy of Normandy, William burned the town of Mantes. While riding through the burning town, William's horse reared and stumbled onto a burning brand. England's conqueror received injuries to his abdoment from the saddle's pommel. He was carried on a litter to the monastery at St. Gervaise in Rouen and died there a few weeks after.

Before his death, he divided his lands among his three male heirs. As soon as they recieved the announcement of their inheritance, they left their father's side to secure their bequest. As soon as the king drew his last breath, the attendants hired to care for him rushed to their horses, eager to secure their own interests under the new king. The lowest of the servants stole everythign that they could find and fled, leaving William dead on the floor. The funeral of the conqueror were attended to by the a poor knight named Herlouin. Being the sole mourner, he attended the king's body to Caen, where the remains were interred in an abbey which William himself had erected in that city. Even in death, peace was beyond the conqueror's grasp. Caen was being consumed by a fire which destroyed a large portion of the city and scattered the funeral procession. Only a few monks remained with the corpse. Just when the words "Ashes to ashes, dust to dust" were about to be said, a voice rang out and announced that William could not be buried because the ground in which the grave had been dug had been unjustly taken from its rightful owner: William's father. The funeral was temporarily suspended while witnesses were interviewed and money was counted out to pay for the ground. Finally, the mortal remains of William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy and King of England, were laid to rest. 
I10337 William "The Conqueror", I, King Of England, Duke of Normandy
 
184 William strengthened the Church by establishing ecclesiastical courts, which would prove to be a source of trouble during Henry II's reign. He rejected the demand of fealty put on England by Pope Gregory VII and required his Norman bishops and abbots to lead the most exemplary lives. He was known to dismiss those that he deemed unworthy of the position. I10337 William "The Conqueror", I, King Of England, Duke of Normandy
 
185 William was the first of four Norman kings who ruled England.

From Library of Universal History and Popular Science, vol. 7, p. 2237:

At his coronation, [...] both English and Norman nobles were present, and good order prevailed inside the building. The question asked these nobles was: "Will you have William, Duke of Normandy, for your king?" Both parties answered "Yes," with loud acclamations. But the Norman soldiers outside, imagining that the noise signified violence against their duke, attached the multitude who assembled about the doors from innocent curiosity, and even set fire to houses in the vicinity. King William the Conqueror, after receiving the English crown from the Archbishop of Canterbury, succeeded in quieting the tumult; but only after a sense of personal wrong had thus been added to the deep national despair of the vanquished English.  
I10337 William "The Conqueror", I, King Of England, Duke of Normandy
 
186 Birth probably took place in Ireland. I9231 ? ?
 
187 In 1756, the children, Martha (wife of Thomas Hosley), Ruth (wife of William Tarbell), Sarah (wife of Francis Crosby), Susanna (unmarried), Abigail Hill (widow), and Anna (wife of Samuel Bailey), united in a written engagment to support their mother, widow Abigail Richardson. It was recorded in the Middlesex Probate Records. I16690 ? Abigail
 
188 It was proven on 05 Oct 1770 and mentions her sons, Caleb, Joshua, John, and James, as well as her daughter, Susanna Gore. She also mentioned the children of John: John, Joseph, Susanna and the grandchildren, Abigail Gyles, Luke Hall, Edward Hall, Joshua hall, and Mary Child. Luke Hall and his brothers were children of Edward and Abigail (Richardson) Hall of Medford. I16832 ? Abigail
 
189 Page number 7, Dwelling number 46.

People listed in household:

HARRINGTON, JOSEPH -- Male, 35 years old, Laborer, personal property valued at $600, born in NY
HARRINGTON, ORFAHY -- Female, 31 years old, born in NY
HARRINGTON, MARTIN -- Male, 9 years old, born in NY
FULLER, ABIGAIL -- Female, 79 years old, born in NY, listed as a widow 
I17355 ? Abigail
 
190 Alice arrived aboard the third ship, named the Ann. I23770 ? Alice
 
191 The family is living at 97 South Street. I18510 ? Alma
 
192 The family is living at 31 Pierce Avenue. All family members are listed as being white, and as being able to read, write, and speak English.

ANNAN, AMELIA -- head of household, female, born Jun 1859, 40 years old, widowed, mother of three children (three of whom are living), born in NJ, both parents born in Germany, no occupation listed, rents her home
ANNAN, WILLIAM -- son, male, born Dec 1885, 14 years old, single, born in NY, father born in Scotland, mother born in NJ, does factory work, out of work 0 months in last 12
ANNAN, JENNIE -- daughter, female, born Sep 1888, 11 years old, single, born in NY, father born in Scotland, mother born in NJ, attending school
ANNAN, FREDERICK -- son, male, born Oct 1891, 8 years old, single, born in NY, father born in Scotland, mother born in NJ, attending school 
I28452 ? Amelia
 
193 The family is living at 32 Hudson Street. The family is renting the residence for $15 a month, and the residence is not a farm.

All family members are listed as being white and married.

BAKER, MAYNARD -- head of household, male, 58 years old, has not attended school since March 1st, completed 8 years of school, born in Canada, speaks English, naturalized citizen, lives in the home, has a job or business, works as a paper maker tending machines, normally works for wages or salaray in private work, worked 23 weeks in 1939, received $800 in salary and wages, received more than $50 for sources other than wages and salary

BAKER, KATHLEEN -- wife, female, 47 years old, has not attended school since March 1st, completed 4 years of high school, born in NY, lives in the home, works for pay or profit in private or nonemergency government work during the week of Mar 24 to Mar 30 and worked a full 40 hours, works as a teacher in a public school, works for wages or salary for the government, worked 40 weeks in 1939, received salary and wages of $1600.00, did not receive $50 or more from sources other than wages & salary

CAMERON, GEORGE L. -- father-in-law, male, 76 years old, has attended school since March 1st, completed 6 years of school, born in NY, lives in Oneida county, NY (which has less than 2600 inhabitants), does not live on a farm, unable to work, worked 0 hours in 1939, and earned $0

CAMERON, AMELIA -- mother-in-law, female, 76 years old, has attended school since March 1st, completed 6 years of school, born in NY, lives in Oneida county, NY (which has less than 2600 inhabitants), does not live on a farm, does housework at home, worked 0 weeks in 1939 and earned $0

Kathleen is the one that provided the information to the census taker. 
I28492 ? Amelia
 
194 (Research):Ann's last name may have been Babcock. I10130 ? Ann
 
195 Anna is listed as being 51 and born in NY. She is living with her husband, Martin, and Asael Granger (a son or grandson?) Asael is a 14 year old male. I911 ? Anna
 
196 Card was issued under the name Anna Karolchick. I2906 ? Anna
 
197 On her way from Dover, CT to Exeter, CT, Anna was waylaid, robbed, and most brutally murdered. Her body was flung into the river. Whether the perpetrator of the outrage was ever brought to justice is not known. I9132 ? Anna
 
198 The family is living at 52 William St. I2906 ? Anna
 
199 Her last residence is listed as being Scribner, Dodge, NE (zip code 68057). The SSN was issued under the name Anna Poppe. I12254 ? Anna M.
 
200 Ann is not mentioned in her husband's will that was written on 8 May 1677. I7224 ? Anne
 

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